90% in the Target Language


ACTFL says 90% of the teachers and students speaking should be in the target language
1. The world language class is the only time that our students will hear the world language. We need to maximize the amount of world language the students hear.
2. The more language input the students receive, the better they can learn the language (Krashen).
3. If we do 90% of a 40 minute class in the target language, then 36 minutes is completely in the world language (ACTFL).
4. “In most beginning world languages classes (Levels 1 and 2), English is the predominant language” (Burke). Students hear more English in the class than the world language!
5. Code switching (world language <-> English) prevents the students from being completely in the target language. Many classroom activities like English-to-world language flashcards, word translation board games, and translation relays have students use English.

Some metaphors:
–Imagine your students taking one step forward for each time the world language is spoken in the class and one step backward each time English is spoken in the class. How far can your students move forward in your class?
–Each time we teachers speak in the world language, the students’ world language learning becomes brighter; each time we speak in English, the dimmer the students’ world language learning becomes. How bright is your classroom?

— 45 +Modern Language and Spanish spontaneous speaking activities for beginning students. Almost entirely in target language. Game like speaking- http://bit.ly.mlcomcult
— 90 Mobile Learning Modern Language Activities
ebook with many speaking and cultural activities  http://bit.ly/tsmash
— Modern Language in-depth cultural investigation activities (4 activities in one pack)- http://bit.ly/mlcult
–Foreign language formative assessment speaking book: http://bit.ly/impfltfa
–Modern Language Proficiency: Can-Do ebook http://bit.ly/tsmash

Change Modern Language Reading Passages to Target Language Only

ACTFL’s 90% guideline push us to use the target language in the classroom.  However, that target language push seems to break down when it comes to a final and specifically, the reading passage on a final.  Many finals such as the former New York State Regents have a passage in the target language and then comprehension questions in English. The implication seems to be that the students cannot understand the new modern language enough to answer questions.

Even beginning students can answer questions in the target language about a reading passage. If students read a passage that states “Bob goes to the store for milk”, students can answer in the target language reading comprehension questions such as “Who goes to the store?” or  “Where does Bob go?”.  Students answer with the word directly taken from the passage.

Teacher can increase the difficulty of the reading comprehension by using synonyms so students do not answer  directly from the passage.  “Bob buys twelve apples and two carrots for four dollars”  A reading comprehension question might be “Which does he buy more of:  vegetable or fruit?” or “How much does he spend?”  Notice that in these questions the student has to know the synonym for the word in the passage.

An even harder level is that of inference where students have to use logic.  “Bob watches the TV weather and takes his umbrella to work.”   The weather will probably be A) snow  B) rain  C) cloudy  or D) windy. In the inference level, the student has to go beyond the literary meaning and make an assumption. People use an umbrella for protection from the rain.

Do you keep reading comprehension in the target language even at beginning levels?

My ebook, 90 Mobile Learning Modern Language Activities, is available at http://bit.ly/90mlact.You can instantly use these many communication activities in your classroom with even beginning students when only half the class has mobile devices. It can be downloaded as a pdf.

I have developed 5 Visual activities/games  for any modern language (no words) and have developed 27 Spanish activities for students to begin to express themselves in the modern language and to move toward spontaneous speaking Teacherspayteachers:  http://bit.ly/tpthtuttle

My three formative assessment books, Improving Foreign Language Speaking Through Formative Assessment, Formative Assessment: Responding to Your Students and Successful Student Writing Through Formative Assessment, are available at  http://bit.ly/tuttlebks