90% in the Target Language

 

ACTFL says 90% of the teachers and students speaking should be in the target language
1. The world language class is the only time that our students will hear the world language. We need to maximize the amount of world language the students hear.
2. The more language input the students receive, the better they can learn the language (Krashen).
3. If we do 90% of a 40 minute class in the target language, then 36 minutes is completely in the world language (ACTFL).
4. “In most beginning world languages classes (Levels 1 and 2), English is the predominant language” (Burke). Students hear more English in the class than the world language!
5. Code switching (world language <-> English) prevents the students from being completely in the target language. Many classroom activities like English-to-world language flashcards, word translation board games, and translation relays have students use English.

Some metaphors:
–Imagine your students taking one step forward for each time the world language is spoken in the class and one step backward each time English is spoken in the class. How far can your students move forward in your class?
–Each time we teachers speak in the world language, the students’ world language learning becomes brighter; each time we speak in English, the dimmer the students’ world language learning becomes. How bright is your classroom?

Resources:
— 45 +Modern Language and Spanish spontaneous speaking activities for beginning students. Almost entirely in target language. Game like speaking- http://bit.ly.mlcomcult
— 90 Mobile Learning Modern Language Activities
ebook with many speaking and cultural activities  http://bit.ly/tsmash
— Modern Language in-depth cultural investigation activities (4 activities in one pack)- http://bit.ly/mlcult
–Foreign language formative assessment speaking book: http://bit.ly/impfltfa
–Modern Language Proficiency: Can-Do ebook http://bit.ly/tsmash

Visuals Convey Meaning in World Language

Many methodologies such as Comprehensible Input, Immersion, the Total Physical Response Approach and the Direct Approach urge that teachers uses visual techniques to convey the meaning of a word, phrase or sentence (http://moramodules.com/ALMMethods.htm#The%20Direct%20Approach). By using these techniques teachers and students can be in the world language for 90% of the class (http://www.actfl.org/news/position-statements/use-the-target-language-the-classroom-0). In addition, instead of students going from learning an abstract world language word to an English word, they learn a world language word and see a concrete image for that word’s meaning. Dale’s Cone of Experience indicates that students remember better when they see instead of just hear (http://imagestack.co/52385894-edgar-dales-cone-of-learning.html).

A Sample of visuals:

1) Visuals – pictures, pictures from travels, pictures from the Internet, drawings, chalk talks, maps, timelines, projected images, graphs

2) Realia and props – clothing, food, movie ticket, game ticket, doll house

3) Actions – demonstrations, modeling, manipulatives, gestures (hand gestures, facial expressions, body language)

(Sources: http://mslizethbrown.weebly.com/tangibles.html

How often do you use these visual techniques to help your students better understand meaning in their new world language? How often do your students use visuals to help them express their ideas?

At http://bit.ly/mlcomcult, there are many world language visual stories for students to talk about.