Create a modern language final using Can-Do Statements

At this time of the year many college  modern language teachers are preparing their students for finals. Some finals test the textbook while others test certain language skills.

Many modern language finals reveal very little about the actual proficiency of the students. The final in one school district or college probably differs in content from the final in another school district and from state to state. Such finals may not represent language proficiency but represent translation skills, discrete vocabulary learning, discrete non-contextual grammar learning at a low level and random cultural facts. Modern language teachers benefit from a national standard to use so they can truly evaluate their students’ proficiency against other students’ proficiencies.The NCSSFL-ACTFLCan-Do statements serve such a purpose.

When teachers compare their finals to the Can-Do statements for their level, they may discover that they are testing on items that ACTFL says students should not be proficient in. For example, a beginning college class may have a  past tense, the preterite, questions on the final. Students in a beginning level may only reach Novice High and talking in various time frames does not show up until Intermediate High; therefore, students cannot be tested on the preterite. On the other hand, students may be tested at a lower level than ACTFL states. When students read in the target language, they are expected to respond in the target language. ACTFL does not include “translate into English” in any of the reading Can-Do statements.

Also, teachers may find that their final does not focus on language functions as NCSSFL-ACTFL Can-Do Statements do.  A Can-Do based final represents real-life language use, not isolated discrete statements. The final reflects the various language functions for that proficiency level. For example, at the Novice Mid level, can students describe their family and friends? At the Novice High, can students complete map directions based on an actual map?

Does your modern language final show what your students Can-Do according to NCSSFL-ACTFL Can-Do statements?  Or is it a grammar-vocabulary tests of discrete items?

At,  I have 30+ ready-to-use activities (about 24 for Spanish and 6 for all Modern Language) to develop student’s spontaneous speaking starting with highly structured or scaffolded speaking for beginning students. Students work in pairs to communicate and they usually assess each other in a formative assessment manner.

My ebook, Modern Language Proficiency: Can-Do Strategies is available at  It contain many activities to help students advance through the Can-Do statements with half the activities focusing on interpersonal communication/ speaking.

At, there are four modern language culture inquiry activities and one Spanish culture inquiry activity.  My ebook, 90 Mobile Learning Modern Language Activities ebook contains many communicative and cultural activities for students to don on their smartphone or tablet,



Some Modern Language Student Speaking Questions to Ponder

As we start the new school year, we might want to ponder these questions about our students’ modern language speaking.

Will  my students study the modern language or use the modern  language more?  Even beginning level students can have conversations if we structure class.

Who needs more practice in speaking the target language – me or my students? If my students, then, how do I have them practice the language more in the classroom?

If I want my students to converse in the modern language, how do I help them develop good skills in asking and answering questions?

How can I move from a tennis classroom in which I serve a question or sentence to one student at a time to a soccer classroom in which all students participate at the same time so that students can speak more in the classroom?

For how many minutes each classroom will my students converse? How many sentences do I want my students to use in their  conversation? Four, six, eight, ten sentences or more at a time?  How will I help to increase in the amount that they can say during a conversation?

How will I help my students to go from memorizing sentences to spontaneously modifying memorized sentences to create their own personal meaning sentences?

How fluent (in terms of sentences per minute) do I want my students to be in spontaneous speaking?  How do I structure my lessons for them to increase in their fluency?


My ebook, 90 Mobile Learning Modern Language Activities, is available at It has many activities that you can use instantly in your classroom with even beginning students when only half the class has mobile devices

I have developed  5 Modern Language Visual activities (no words) and developed 27 Spanish activities for students to begin to express themselves in the modern language and to move toward spontaneous speaking Teacherspayteachers:

My three formative assessment books, Improving Foreign Language Speaking Through Formative Assessment, Formative Assessment: Responding to Your Students and Successful Student Writing Through Formative Assessment, are available at

What type of reading should be on a modern language test?

For me, the purpose of a modern language course  is to teach the modern language so students can use it. Therefore, I become confused when I see a test in which students read a modern language passage  and then have to answer questions about it  in English. I used that type of testing when I took Latin over 50 years ago. I hope that modern language methodology has changed since then. That  type of testing is a translation testing. That type of testing raises some questions:
– Why is it more important for the students to translate than for them to use the modern language?
– Cannot we teach them  reading techniques to be able to read and answer in the modern language?
– Why are we giving them a reading exercise that is harder than reading in the modern language?  If they are answering questions in the modern language, they can look for the same or similar words in the passage to find the answer.  If they are working in English, they have to translate the words into Spanish to find the answer.

I teach my students three simple techniques that allow them to successfully read in the modern language:
1) Answer the question word. If the question word asks “How many…?, they look for a number.
2)  Look for the answers in the passage in order.  First find the answer to question one, then look for the answer to question, etc.  If students know that the answer to question four follows the answer to question three, they can logically find the answer.
3) Look for the same words or similar words  in the question and in the passage.  The writer may use a synonym such as  boy for youth. If the question asks, “When did he eat the hamburger?”, the reader can look for these words in the passage and, probably, if there are two or more of those words, find  the answer.

With these techniques, they can answer literal or factual questions very successfully. With more practice, they can answer higher level reading such as inference and interpretation with the language.

Let’s move to in-language  reading testing instead of  translation reading. Let’s show our students that we believe they can read and understand in the modern language.

My Spanish spontaneous speaking activities (25+) includes Modified Speed Dating (Students ask partner a question from a card-whole class), Structured Speaking (Students substitute in or select words to communicate in pairs), Role Playing (Students talk as people in pictures or drawings from 2-4 people), Speaking Mats (Can talk using a wide variety of nouns, verbs and adjectives to express their ideas- pairs or small group), Spontaneous Speaking (based on visuals or topics in pairs), and Grammar speaking games (pairs or small group). Available for a nominal fee at Teacherspayteachers: I have a series of modern language visual stories (the beach, the city, school, etc.) for two students to role play; the restaurant role play involves four students. Can use in any language since there are just visuals, no words.

My book, Improving Foreign Language Speaking Through Formative Assessment, and my book, Formative Assessment, Responding to Students, are available at