Fluency = Overall World Language Proficiency according to a study

Baker-Smemoe, Dewey, Brown, and Martinsen’s article “Does Measuring L2 Utterance Fluency Equal Measuring Overall L2 Proficiency?  Evidence From Five Languages” in Foreign Language Annals 47-7 (Winter 2014), 707-728  reports on a study done in five languages. They measured elements of fluency using excerpts from ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPI) spoken by 86 participants.  Forty participants provided pre- and post OPI speech samples.  All the participants were native English speakers who spoke other languages.

Some of their findings:
– Speech rate seems to be the strongest fluency indicator of L2 proficiency”
– L2 utterance  fluency does not help distinguish among groups at lower L2 levels such as the Novice
– L2  fluency of the number of hesitations and false starts varies not by level nor language but by the  individual speaker.
– Fluency varies by language. Reaching L2 proficiency level in German takes longer than reaching the same L2 level in French for native English speakers.
– Incrememental improvements in L2 proficiency did occurr with concomitant changes in L2 utterance fluency for two of the measures (faster speech rate and longer run length). These two measures also predicted L2 proficiency in general.

If speech rate and longer run length help predict proficiency, how do you help you students develop these in their world language communication in your class?

http://bit.ly/mlcomcult has many fluency activities with fluency boxes for students to record how many sentences they say in a specific time.  Go to top menu – More.

Polyglot Benny Lewis’ advice on learning languages

Bennie Lewis, the Irish polygot,  speaks over 12 languages. He did not start his language learning until he was 21.

When he was in Spain, he took a language courese and it did not work. He tried Spansih language books and that did not work;he  tried software and DVDs and that did not work; he tried to read a book in Spanish and that did not work. After 6 months living in Spain, he could not speak Spanish. He began to speak it and use it all the time and he became fluent.

He states several reasons for not learning a language and why these are not true

—  Don’t have the words- if learning a Romance language, then 10,000 words from English are similar; figure out how to say things. Think of a word that has a cognate: country to nation (nación) and come in to enter (entrar in Spanish). Use Cognates.  Even in a non Romance language use brand name or technology – coca cola,  ipad.

— Can’t learn the vocabulary. Learn  vocabularythrough association- make it more fun – playa = beach in Spanish ( think of a player walking down a beach).

— Don’t know the grammar. Most of language learning in school is grammar, Grammar is a list of rules, it is not language, Language is a means of communication,  More effective is to embrace speaking and speaking wrongly. Speak with many mistakes a day, 100. Start with Tarzan like speak.People will understand you in broken language. After you can speak, then go back and learn the grammar.

— Will make mistakes. People feel like they’re not allowed to use the language, to speak it, unless every conjugation is perfect, every pronunciation is right, they know a thousand words, or whatever it is. They feel they need to know it perfect, and that is a mistake because a language is not like geography or history, a list of facts that you need to cram into your brain. It’s a means of communication, so you can’t study it for five years and then suddenly be able to speak it. You have to be speaking it throughout the entire process. It is a mistake to not be okay with making mistakes.

— Will frustrate the listener. It does not work like that. Frustration over not speaking language is the greater frustration. All over the world people are over joyed that you are speaking their language, they encourage you even though your grammar is bad.

Live the language, it is not locking yourself away with a dusty old grammar book, It is about getting out there and using the language..

Summarized from the following sites:

TEDxSanAntonio – Benny Lewis – Fluent in Three Months – Rapid Language Hacking  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HZqUeWshwMs

Benny encouraging language learners on RTE’s The Saturday Night Show  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MQFb9_FPPBM

5-brilliant-language-learning-tips-from-benny-lewis-the-irish-polyglot  http://blog.vocapp.com/5-brilliant-language-learning-tips-from-benny-lewis-the-irish-polyglot,140/

Benny Lewis’website  https://fi3mplus.com/premium-3/?_ga=1.261621704.438442521.1440099707

How does your class encourage language learners to communicate in their world language?

Many activities to get your students actively using the language in beginning levels at http://bit.ly/mlcomcult and a list of mobile speaking activities at http://bit.ly/90mlact

Highly Effective World Language Communication Activities

Each student speaks in pairs so that everyone in the class can increase their amount of speaking.

Each student responds without looking at their notes, the handout, the textbook, the classwebsite, or the PowerPoint. They speak spontaneously.

Each student answers real situational or topical questions, not questions designed to illict a specific grammar point.

Each student answers many questions for the same topic so they go in-depth with a topic.

Each student answers many different questions. Often in class, students only get called on a few times.

Each student who answers a question or makes a response can receive formative feedback from the partner who can see a sample answer.

Each student has low emotional stress since the student is asked a question by another student and not the teacher. At the same time, often partners compete against each other to see who can answer the most questions or say the most sentences.

Each student can use the scaffolding of the asked question, the visual, etc. to help become successful in responding.

Modern Language Communication and Culture contains over 40+ communication activities that are ready to use for the classroom. To help you to find an appropriate activity, the activities have been subdivided into Modern Language (visual stories for all languages), Spanish, Can-Do, Groupings, Topics, Culture and Grammar.

Modern Language Communication and Culture Activities

Modern Language Communication and Culture Activities

Which of your activities are highly effective world language communication activities?

Three Levels of World Language Culture

Level 1: Students learn about another culture and the people from another culture by listening to the teacher, watching videos about another culture, seeing pictures, reading information,searching the web,  etc. At this level, the culture is one sided, the students learn about the other culture

Level 2: Students communicate with people from another culture. They can phone, videochat, converse with a native speaker in the class, email/text each other, send pictures, etc. Typically these conversations are about similarities and differences between the two cultures – a school day, places, foods, family, etc. A USA student may interview a person from Peru who works in the USA about food in Peru. A native speaker may teach something to the class and students ask questions about it.

Level 3: Students from both cultures work together on a collaborative project that goes beyond either classroom. For example, they may work together on ways to improve recycling in their communities, raise money for a Kiva project, be part of a rebuilding project, creating books for each other’s school, etc.


What level are your students at in terms of world language culture?

At  http://bit.ly/tsmash, an ebook 90 Mobile Learning Modern Language Activities (mainly speaking and many current culture activities).  At http://bit.ly/tpthtuttle, many culture activities for interactive culture:

Modern Language Culture Activities Pack 4 Different Activities
Modern Language Culture Cities Visual Analysis
Modern Language Culture Ethnographic Observation
Modern Language Culture Mini-Presentation
Modern Language Culture Native Speaker In-Depth Interview

At http://bit.ly/tpthtuttle,  5 any language  picture speaking activities and 25+ ready-to-use Spanish structured speaking activities  for beginning students (including 5 Can-Do ones). At  http://bit.ly/tsmash, an ebook. Modern Language Proficiencies-Can-Do with many activities.  At http://bit.ly/tuttlebks, a book, Improving Foreign Language Speaking Through Formative Assessment.